A PAINLESS SOLUTION TO GLOBAL WARMING, THE US NATIONAL DEBT, HIGH TAXES, AND OTHER NATIONAL AND WORLDWIDE PROBLEMS:
THE MOON AS A SOLAR POWER SATELLITE
GERALD FALBEL 203-357-0626
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
- The current world energy usage is 137 trillion equivalent kilowatt-hours per year and is growing, with China and India coming on line and burning fossil fuels.
- In order to have a significant impact on global warming without returning to the Stone Age, we must inject more than 20 trillion kilowatt-hours of clean, non-CO2 emitting energy per year into world energy usage.
- The Satellite Solar Power System, (SPS), was originally proposed in 1968 by Dr. Peter Glaser, of Arthur D. Little Co. as a series of 75 Km2, photovoltaic solar collector satellites orbiting at geosynchronous (22,500 mile) altitude. These satellites remain fixed over a point on the earth. The solar energy collected would be beamed to the earth surface 24 hours a day, using microwave energy, which can pass through cloud cover. This concept was studied in multi-million dollar studies by major aerospace companies between 1977 and 1980, and was found to be feasible, but expensive.
- President Reagan, proclaimed “Morning in America” but did not “see the sun”, and canceled further study in 1980
PEAK FOSSIL FUEL USAGE = 12.6 TRILLION WATTS (TW) INCREASING TO OVER 20 TRILLION BY 2020
CURRENTLY PROPOSED EARTHBOUND RENEWABLE SYSTEMS
IN VIEW OF THE 137 TRILLION KILOWATT-HRS/YEAR OF WORLD ENERGY USAGE, NONE OF THESE APPROACHES CAN MAKE A SIGNIFICANT DENT IN GLOBAL WARMING
THE ONLY APPROACH CAPABLE OF GENERATING ENOUGH CLEAN ENERGY, WITHOUT REQUIRING A RETURN TO THE STONE AGE, IS SOLAR ENERGY FROM SPACE
- For over 35 years I have proposed a modified version of the Satellite Solar Power System, (SPS), using the moon as the “satellite”.
- The original SPS was designed and evaluated by major aerospace companies under the joint sponsorship of the Department of Energy and NASA between 1977 and 1980 in multimillion dollar studies
OVERALL CONFIGURATION OF GEOSYNCHRONOUS SPS (FROM DOE STUDIES)
ULTIMATE SOLAR-THERMAL STIRLING CYCLE ELECTRICITY GENERATING SYSTEM AT THE LUNAR EQUATOR
TABLE I OVERALL ADVANTAGES OF A SATELLITE SOLAR POWER SYSTEM
- Major reduction in the “greenhouse effect” global warming caused by burning fossil fuels
- A totally “clean” electric power generation with no nuclear or toxic waste
- The applicable technology is available today, and requires no scientific “breakthrough” as does hydrogen fusion
- Application of U.S. Engineering talent to useful and constructive ends
- A defusing of the oil-dependent powder keg in the Middle East
- A major reduction in oil revenues by Middle East regimes will greatly reduce terrorist funding
- Unlimited availability of clean electric power worldwide will benefit developing countries, save the rain forests, and eliminate acid rainThis program will accelerate the development of lower cost earth-mounted solar photovoltaic cells due to quantity production
- The rectennas receiving the microwave energy allow 80% of sunlight to pass. By mounting these rectennas on floating islands in the ocean, siphoning off some of the received microwave energy for use in desalinization of seawater, food can be grown in abundance to feed the world
- This program is ideal for an international co-operative effort, where every nation benefits, thus making wars and conflicts between the participants unlikely
TABLE II TECHNICAL ADVANTAGES OF A LUNAR‑BASED SOLAR THERMAL-ELECTRICITY SPS OVER A GEOSYNCHRONOUS SPS
- The moon is a much more reliable and stable platform than a geosynchronous spacecraft.
- The moon has unlimited expansion space for additional solar power capacity.
- In order to generate 2 trillion watts, representing only 10% of yearly world energy use in 2020, a GEO SPS array requires 400, 5 gwatt satellites separated by < 100 miles in orbit, having a total area of 30,000 Km2
- A 1 Kgram meteor impacting this large area can cause a chain reaction, producing a “Saturn Ring” of space debris, a catastrophic result, making space unusable. A lunar platform is immune from this.
- Raw materials for major parts of the solar collector and for unlimited increased solar collection capacity are available directly from lunar regolith, and do not have to be lifted from the earth.
The 0.001” thick concentrating reflector generates 227 times the watts/kgram of the best GEO SPS proposed (SCARLET)
- Collector and transmitting antenna assembly is much simpler and cheaper under lunar gravity than in a zero g environment
- Due to earth rotation, lunar solar energy is distributed worldwide, thus forcing developing nations such as in Aftrica and India and China to utilize it in preference to conventional solar panels on the earth which generate energy at a rate of only 4/24/7
TABLE III TECHNICAL DISADVANTAGES OF A LUNAR VS. A GEOSYNCHRONOUS ALTITUDE SPS
- Earth rotates underneath the transmitting antenna in a lunar SPS
- The moon is approximately 10 times farther from the earth than geosynchronous altitude, thus requiring a 100 times larger rectenna areas than for the geosynchronous antenna
TABLE IV PROPOSED SOLUTIONS TO THE TECHNICAL DISADVANTAGES
Locate rectennas at three or four longitudes on the earth. This would provide solar power to other nations except the US, and would make the US. an energy exporting nation once again
Locate Hydrogen gas generating facilities near each rectenna. These facilities would apply 1/6 of the received microwave energy directly to the electric grid in that country. The remaining 5/6 would generate Hydrogen, 2/6 of this Hydrogen would be used in stationary fuel cells to generate the remaining daily requirements of electricity on the grid during the 12 hour period when no microwave energy is received from the moon. The remaining 3/6 of this Hydrogen would be sent on pipelines to fuel Hydrogen vehicles. This Hydrogen in liquid form can also be exported to other countries using existing oil tankers
POWER FLOW DIAGRAM FROM GEOSYNCHRONOUS SATELLITE FROM DOE STUDIES
PROPOSED LOCATIONS OF RECTENNAS
These rectennas (made up of paper clip-sized dipole antennas) would be located on all continents or in offshore areas near all continents, thus providing world wide continuous electrical and fuel cell energy, thereby eliminating world dependence on fossil fuels and reversing the Greenhouse Effect and global warming. Suggested locations for these rectennas are presented following:
1. Hudsons Bay
2. Mojave Desert
3. Gobi Desert
4. Sahara Desert
5. Saudi Arabian Desert
7. Argentine Pampas
Floating islands off the coasts of the continents, built using existing off-shore oil derrick technology, which can desalinize sea water and grow crops in abundance to feed the world
PROPOSED DEPOSITION OF FURLED REFLECTOR FILMS ON LUNAR SURFACE WITH MINIMUM FUEL AND LIFT WEIGHT USING TILTED SPINNING ROCKETS FOR LUNAR SOFT LANDING
FURLED REFLECTOR CONFIGURATION
CONFIGURATION OF DESCENT MODULE OF FURLED 9 REFLECTOR CLUSTER
SOFT LANDING THRUST CALCULATIONS
- Earth Weight of 1 x 105 m² x 2.54 x 10-5 m UV-hard, aluminized polyester reflector
= 1 x 105 m² x 1.4 grms/cc x 104 cm²/ m² x 2.54 x 10-5 m = 3,556 earth kgrams.
- Solar collection with 30% efficiency solar thermal – electricity Stirling Cycle converter= 1,350 watts/m² x 0.3 = 405 watts/m² x 1 x 105 m² = 40.5 Mwatts/kgram of collector mass efficiency factor = 40.5 x 106/3,556 Kg. = 11,389 watts/Kg.
- This efficiency factor is 227 times better than the best orbital collector/mass efficiency (SCARLET)
CALCULATIONS SHOWING METHOD OF DEPOSITING NINE,100 X 1,000 m2 SOLAR REFLECTOR STRIPS ON LUNAR SURFACE DIRECT FROM AN EARTH TO L-1 ECCENTRIC ORBIT
- Effective mass of reflector strip in lunar gravity = 3,556/6 = 593 Kg.
- Therefore, a >6000 kgram or 2,727 lb-force thrust deceleration rocket will provide adequate thrust to levitate 9 of these furled reflectors to the lunar surface
- What is needed is a variable thrust rocket engine that brings the package vertical velocity to near zero at a <10 meter lunar altitude
- In order to minimize the required attitude control for the furled reflector the rocket engines would be attached to the 9-furled-reflector bundle by a tension cable in a configuration similar to that used for the Mars Landers, so that the furled package would always be oriented aligned with the lunar local vertical during the landing approach
- In order to minimize lateral acceleration during the descent trajectory, the assembly would be spin stabilized around the descent axis during descent. Variable thrust is achieved by varying the angle between the rocket engines
- At a height of less than 10 meters above the lunar surface, determined by a radar altimeter, the cable would be severed, and the furled package would drop to the lunar surface by lunar gravity acceleration, while the rocket motor and cable would blast out to space’
SOLAR-THERMAL STIRLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
- This system, uses the attributes of the lunar platform more efficiently, and uses a higher efficiency solar-thermal-to-electrical power conversion.
- Experiments with Stirling cycle solar energy conversion systems, conducted at Sandia National Laboratories and at NASA Glenn Research Center have have shown that end-to-end solar-to-electricity efficiencies higher than 31.9% are achievable, and as high as 40% if high temperatures for the gas can be reached through the use of high gain solar concentrators.
- This is up to 2.5 times the efficiency of the photovoltaic reference approach studied in 1977.
- The system shown in the previous slide, which girds the lunar equator, uses the lunar gravity and windless environment to achieve a very low cost cylindrical concentrator composed entirely of 1 mil aluminized polyester film hanging in a catenary, (which closely approximates a parabola).
- This catenary focuses the sun on a series of linear pipes containing the Stirling cycle gas. This gas is heated to increase its pressure, thus driving the Stirling engines distributed along this linear concentrator, which generate the electricity.
- No solar tracking is required because it is an optical characteristic of a cylindrical mirror that its line focus is maintained independent of the incident angle of the incoming rays in the plane of the cylindrical axis, and the maximum +/- 5° angular variation of the sun in the elevation plane is accommodated by the width of the black pipe collector. The availability of an unlimited heat sink less than 100°K on the dark side of the moon and in the shadow of the reflector, where the Stirling Engines are mounted, should allow even higher efficiencies.
- The equatorial location with the dimensions shown in he previous slide results in 10,000 km. of collector length, with 3,330 km² of net collecting area at any one time.
- As is shown below, since the Stirling cycle efficiency is approximately twice that of the photovoltaic cell configuration, this system produces a net energy of 5.31 Trillion Kw-hrs per year, generating a yearly revenue of $637 billion to the US Treasury at the current average electricity rate of 12 cents/kwatt-hour.
METHOD OF FUNDING LUNAR SOLAR POWER STATION
As I am sure you have read or heard in the Media of the approvals by Congress and Presidents of both parties, of such obviously unneeded and wasteful projects in the present anti-Terror warfare regime as:
- The Sea Wolf “Hunter-Killer Attack Submarines ($2 billion each)
- The Osprey STOL Helicopter/Airplane
- The B1 and B-2 Bombers
- The International Space Station
- Strategic Defense Initiative (“Star Wars”)
- F-22 Fighter Aircraft
- F-35 Multi-Service Aircraft >$1 TRILLION total
- National Missile Defense >$60 billion todate
- Upgrading US Atomic Weapons $1 trillion
- In addition to the above, the recent Paris Environmental Agreement allocated $100 billion/year to Global Warming Reduction. All or a portion of these funds can be used for an international project to construct this lunar-based solar energy system with a huge employment surge in the US and in other participating nations around the world.
METHOD OF FUNDING A LUNAR SOLAR POWER STATION WITHOUT INCREASING TAXES
- In an OP-ED article published in the Stamford Advocate on May 22, 1992, I proposed a diversion of the current funds for weapon systems for which there is no credible mission, into a single, long term, project to obtain more than 5.3 trillion kwatt-hours of electrical energy per year on a 24/7 basis from a lunar solar energy platform. This is equivalent to more than 3 billion barrels of oil per year, indefinitely.
- 3 billion barrels is the total amount stored in the Artic National Wildlife Range
- I submit that these funds are currently being directed to “WPA” type “make work” projects to defense and aerospace contractors, which form part of the “Military-Industrial-Congressional Complex.
- One of many such weapon systems are the “hunter-killer” attack submarines currently being built and serviced here in Connecticut by the Groton submarine base.
- Senator Lieberman and Governor Rell have made proud statements of “saving 31,000 jobs” by continuing this wasteful use of taxpayer funds.
- In my proposal, these same funds would be diverted to one useful project to make the US energy independent by obtaining unlimited, absolutely clean, energy from space on a 24/7 basis.
- Moreover, by re-directing these already-allocated funds to the same aerospace industries receiving them now, there would be no lay-offs, no economic dislocation, and no increase in taxes.
MAJOR ADVANTAGES RESULTING FROM THIS DIVERSION OF EXISTING TAX FUNDS
The following major advantages would accrue from implementation of this project:
1. Reducing and Ultimately Reversing Global Warming
2. Starving Terrorist funding by eliminating US dependence on Mideast oil
3. Saving Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid without an increase in any taxes or F.I.C.A by utilizing the $637 billion yearly income from lunar solar power at the current rate of 0.12/kilowatt-hour
4. Paying off the National Debt
5. Reversing the US balance of payments deficit by exporting lunar solar energy to the world
6. Once National Debt is paid off, a reduction of US income taxes even for the billionaires,
7. If a senior official of the US were to announce the proposed initiation of this program, oil futures
would drop by at least 20 points and gas and heating oil prices would drop commensurately.
8. As was discussed in multiple OP-ED pieces by Tom Friedman of the New York Times, our profligate use of oil is being used as a weapon against us by funding Iran, Al Qaeda, Hezbollah, etc. The best long range weapon against Terrorism is to cut off the funding to these terrorist sources by reducing our consumption of foreign oil (see 2. above).
THE ESTIMATED COST
- If Burt Rutan, who won the “X Prize” by going into space with private funds for only $20 million, was given a free hand, and was placed in charge of this program, using the SPACE-XI believe it could be accomplished in as little as ten years @ $25 billion/year for a total amount of $250 billion.
- Of course, the Military-Industrial-Congressional-Complex would never stand for this, so if NASA or the US Military were placed in charge, I believe it could be accomplished in the same time period for $1 trillion, or 20 times the cost of the $40 billion total of the Apollo Moon Program. It would be funded at $100 billion per year, diverted from the current defense budget, with no significant reduction in US defense capabilities in the War on Terror.
THE ORIGINAL WPA PROJECT: THE GREAT PYRAMID OF PHARAOH KHUFU(CONSTRUCTED BY WORKERS PAID BY THE “PRIEST-INDUSTRIAL-COMPLEX”)
- As is shown in the previous slides, the Lunar Equatorial Stirling System can generate 5.31 trillion kilowatt-hours per year, which has a value of $637 billion per year input to the US Economy at 12 cents/kilowatt-hour into the indefinite future
- 5.31 trillion kilowatt-hours represents less than 3% of world energy usage in 2010
- With the unlimited energy available from the moon, if we double the size of the Stirling System on the moon at an additional cost of $200 billion, the US Treasury receives $1.3 trillion per year, doubling it again, (amounting to less than 10% of 2020 world energy usage), would produce $2.6 trillion/year indefinitely.
- This would eliminate the Budget Deficit and ultimately, the National Debt, eliminate all taxes for the US in a few years, and would allow the US to “Corner the Market” on world energy”, making the US a 19th century “robber baron” capitalist, something even the Republicans would approve of.
- I consider this to be a “no-brainer”
- However, as demonstrated in the next few slides, the only response I have received in my 32 year communications to the “movers and shakers” of the world, is a “no-courager”-response.
THE “YELLOW BADGE OF POLITICAL COWARDICE” LIST: MAJOR WORLD LEADERS TO WHOM I SENT THIS PROPOSAL OVER A 34 YEAR PERIOD AND THE LACK OF RESPONSES
FROM A LETTER TO PRESIDENT REAGAN
- When you address the “US Military Industrial Complex”, your attitude is that it is the incarnation of evil, intent only upon destroying the Soviet Union by military threats or application of military advantage.
- Since I am a member of the “Military Industrial Complex”, I assure you that for me, or any one I know, this is not the case.
- However, when it comes to putting bread on the table, most people (including me) will justify their work in the Defense Establishment as assigned tasks that must be done properly and whose parochial justifications may even be advocated so that work accomplished on an ongoing project is not “wasted” by its cancellation.
- I submit to you that this insidious “work ethic” is the underlying cause of the Arms Race to a much greater extent than any military or political necessities.”
- Satellite Power System Concept System Definition Technical Assessment Report” NASA December 1980“Environmental Assessment for the SPS
- Microwave Health and Ecological Effects” EPA November 1980
- Space Power Free Piston Stirling Engine Scaling Study” Mechanical Technology Inc. NASA CR-182218 October 1, 1989
COMMENTS ON GLOBAL WARMING PHYSICS
- The previous slide shows the unique relationship between a 77°F earth temperature spectral emission curve and the spectral transmission “windows” in the earth atmosphere.
- The 8 – 12 micrometer atmospheric window allows the earth to radiate the heat gained from the sun out to cold space, thus preventing global warming.
- This can be experimentally proven by placing an open top thermos bottle with a few oz. of water in its bottom in 120F Arizona, looking at the sky, where the water will freeze.
- By increasing the CO2 content of the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels, we reduce the width of this window, and effectively “choke” the windpipe of the earth, not allowing it to “breathe out”.
- This exquisite balance of atmospheric gases is now being mucked up (and I could use a more appropriate word) by the bible thumpers of Kansas and other places who drive their 8 mpg. Hummers and zero-to-sixty-in-four-seconds muscle cars, causing global warming. My statement to these bible thumpers is: “You are mucking up an “Intelligent Design”.